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Girju, R., Badulescu, A. & Moldovan, D. I. Automatic Discovery of Part-Whole Relations. 2006 Computational Linguistics   article URL  
Abstract: An important problem in knowledge discovery from text is the automatic extraction of semantic relations. This paper presents a supervised, semantically intensive, domain independent approach for the automatic detection of part–whole relations in text. First an algorithm is described that identifies lexico-syntactic patterns that encode part–whole relations. A difficulty is that these patterns also encode other semantic relations, and a learning method is necessary to discriminate whether or not a pattern contains a part–whole relation. A large set of training examples have been annotated and fed into a specialized learning system that learns classification rules. The rules are learned through an iterative semantic specialization (ISS) method applied to noun phrase constituents. Classification rules have been generated this way for different patterns such as genitives, noun compounds, and noun phrases containing prepositional phrases to extract part–whole relations from them. The applicability of these rules has been tested on a test corpus obtaining an overall average precision of 80.95% and recall of 75.91%. The results demonstrate the importance of word sense disambiguation for this task. They also demonstrate that different lexico-syntactic patterns encode different semantic information and should be treated separately in the sense that different clarification rules apply to different patterns.
  author = {Girju, Roxana and Badulescu, Adriana and Moldovan, Dan I.},
  title = {Automatic Discovery of Part-Whole Relations.},
  journal = {Computational Linguistics},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {32},
  number = {1},
  pages = {83-135},
  url = {http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/journals/coling/coling32.html#GirjuBM06}
Mori, J., Tsujishita, T., Matsuo, Y. & Ishizuka, M. Extracting Relations in Social Networks from the Web Using Similarity Between Collective Contexts 2006 International Semantic Web Conference   inproceedings  
Abstract: Social networks have recently garnered considerable interest. With the intention of utilizing social networks for the Semantic Web, several studies have examined automatic extraction of social networks. However, most methods have addressed extraction of the strength of relations. Our goal is extracting the underlying relations between entities that are embedded in social networks. To this end, we propose a method that automatically extracts labels that describe relations among entities. Fundamentally, the method clusters similar entity pairs according to their collective contexts in Web documents. The descriptive labels for relations are obtained from results of clustering. The proposed method is entirely unsupervised and is easily incorporated into existing social network extraction methods. Our method also contributes to ontology population by elucidating relations between instances in social networks. Our experiments conducted on entities in political social networks achieved clustering with high precision and recall. We extracted appropriate relation labels to represent the entities.
  author = {Mori, Junichiro and Tsujishita, Takumi and Matsuo, Yutaka and Ishizuka, Mitsuru},
  title = {Extracting Relations in Social Networks from the Web Using Similarity Between Collective Contexts},
  booktitle = {International Semantic Web Conference},
  year = {2006},
  pages = {487-500}
Ruiz-Casado, M., Alfonseca, E. & Castells, P. Automatic Extraction of Semantic Relationships for WordNet by Means of Pattern Learning from Wikipedia 2005 Natural Language Processing and Information Systems   incollection DOIURL  
Abstract: This paper describes an automatic approach to identify lexical patterns which represent semantic relationships between concepts, from an on-line encyclopedia. Next, these patterns can be applied to extend existing ontologies or semantic networks with new relations. The experiments have been performed with the Simple English Wikipedia and WordNet 1.7. A new algorithm has been devised for automatically generalising the lexical patterns found in the encyclopedia entries. We have found general patterns for the hyperonymy, hyponymy, holonymy and meronymy relations and, using them, we have extracted more than 1200 new relationships that did not appear in WordNet originally. The precision of these relationships ranges between 0.61 and 0.69, depending on the relation.
  author = {Ruiz-Casado, Maria and Alfonseca, Enrique and Castells, Pablo},
  title = {Automatic Extraction of Semantic Relationships for WordNet by Means of Pattern Learning from Wikipedia},
  booktitle = {Natural Language Processing and Information Systems},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {3513},
  pages = {233-242},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/11428817_7},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/11428817_7}

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