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Stumme, G., Taouil, R., Bastide, Y., Pasquier, N. & Lakhal, L. Computing iceberg concept lattices with TITANIC 2002 Data & Knowledge Engineering   article DOIURL  
Abstract: We introduce the notion of iceberg concept lattices and show their use in knowledge discovery in databases. Iceberg lattices are a conceptual clustering method, which is well suited for analyzing very large databases. They also serve as a condensed representation of frequent itemsets, as starting point for computing bases of association rules, and as a visualization method for association rules. Iceberg concept lattices are based on the theory of Formal Concept Analysis, a mathematical theory with applications in data analysis, information retrieval, and knowledge discovery. We present a new algorithm called TITANIC for computing (iceberg) concept lattices. It is based on data mining techniques with a level-wise approach. In fact, TITANIC can be used for a more general problem: Computing arbitrary closure systems when the closure operator comes along with a so-called weight function. The use of weight functions for computing closure systems has not been discussed in the literature up to now. Applications providing such a weight function include association rule mining, functional dependencies in databases, conceptual clustering, and ontology engineering. The algorithm is experimentally evaluated and compared with Ganter's Next-Closure algorithm. The evaluation shows an important gain in efficiency, especially for weakly correlated data.
  author = {Stumme, Gerd and Taouil, Rafik and Bastide, Yves and Pasquier, Nicolas and Lakhal, Lotfi},
  title = {Computing iceberg concept lattices with TITANIC},
  journal = {Data & Knowledge Engineering},
  publisher = {Elsevier Science Publishers B. V.},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {42},
  number = {2},
  pages = {189--222},
  url = {http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=606457},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0169-023X(02)00057-5}

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