Singer, P.; Niebler, T.; Hotho, A. & Strohmaier, M.
, 'Encyclopedia of Social Network Analysis and Mining', Springer, 542-547 (2014)
Deeper Into the Folksonomy Graph: FolkRank Adaptations and Extensions for Improved Tag Recommendations
Landia, N.; Doerfel, S.; Jäschke, R.; Anand, S. S.; Hotho, A. & Griffiths, N.
cs.IR, 1310.1498() (2013) [pdf]
The information contained in social tagging systems is often modelled as a graph of connections between users, items and tags. Recommendation algorithms such as FolkRank, have the potential to leverage complex relationships in the data, corresponding to multiple hops in the graph. We present an in-depth analysis and evaluation of graph models for social tagging data and propose novel adaptations and extensions of FolkRank to improve tag recommendations. We highlight implicit assumptions made by the widely used folksonomy model, and propose an alternative and more accurate graph-representation of the data. Our extensions of FolkRank address the new item problem by incorporating content data into the algorithm, and significantly improve prediction results on unpruned datasets. Our adaptations address issues in the iterative weight spreading calculation that potentially hinder FolkRank's ability to leverage the deep graph as an information source. Moreover, we evaluate the benefit of considering each deeper level of the graph, and present important insights regarding the characteristics of social tagging data in general. Our results suggest that the base assumption made by conventional weight propagation methods, that closeness in the graph always implies a positive relationship, does not hold for the social tagging domain.
Tag Recommendations for SensorFolkSonomies
Mueller, J.; Doerfel, S.; Becker, M.; Hotho, A. & Stumme, G.
, 'Recommender Systems and the Social Web Workshop at 7th ACM Conference on Recommender Systems, RecSys 2013, Hong Kong, China -- October 12-16, 2013. Proceedings', 1066(), CEUR-WS, Aachen, Germany (2013) [pdf]
With the rising popularity of smart mobile devices, sensor data-based
pplications have become more and more popular. Their users record
ata during their daily routine or specifically for certain events.
he application WideNoise Plus allows users to record sound samples
nd to annotate them with perceptions and tags. The app is being
sed to document and map the soundscape all over the world. The procedure
f recording, including the assignment of tags, has to be as easy-to-use
s possible. We therefore discuss the application of tag recommender
lgorithms in this particular scenario. We show, that this task is
undamentally different from the well-known tag recommendation problem
n folksonomies as users do no longer tag fix resources but rather
ensory data and impressions. The scenario requires efficient recommender
lgorithms that are able to run on the mobile device, since Internet
onnectivity cannot be assumed to be available. Therefore, we evaluate
he performance of several tag recommendation algorithms and discuss
heir applicability in the mobile sensing use-case.
Recommender Systems for Social Tagging Systems
Balby Marinho, L.; Hotho, A.; Jäschke, R.; Nanopoulos, A.; Rendle, S.; Schmidt-Thieme, L.; Stumme, G. & Symeonidis, P.
2012, SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering, Springer [pdf]
Social Tagging Systems are web applications in which users upload resources (e.g., bookmarks, videos, photos, etc.) and annotate it with a list of freely chosen keywords called tags. This is a grassroots approach to organize a site and help users to find the resources they are interested in. Social tagging systems are open and inherently social; features that have been proven to encourage participation. However, with the large popularity of these systems and the increasing amount of user-contributed content, information overload rapidly becomes an issue. Recommender Systems are well known applications for increasing the level of relevant content over the “noise” that continuously grows as more and more content becomes available online. In social tagging systems, however, we face new challenges. While in classic recommender systems the mode of recommendation is basically the resource, in social tagging systems there are three possible modes of recommendation: users, resources, or tags. Therefore suitable methods that properly exploit the different dimensions of social tagging systems data are needed. In this book, we survey the most recent and state-of-the-art work about a whole new generation of recommender systems built to serve social tagging systems. The book is divided into self-contained chapters covering the background material on social tagging systems and recommender systems to the more advanced techniques like the ones based on tensor factorization and graph-based models.
Challenges in Tag Recommendations for Collaborative Tagging Systems
Jäschke, R.; Hotho, A.; Mitzlaff, F. & Stumme, G.
Pazos Arias, J. J.; Fernández Vilas, A. & Díaz Redondo, R. P., ed., 'Recommender Systems for the Social Web', 32(), Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, 65-87 (2012) [pdf]
Originally introduced by social bookmarking systems, collaborative tagging, or social tagging, has been widely adopted by many web-based systems like wikis, e-commerce platforms, or social networks. Collaborative tagging systems allow users to annotate resources using freely chosen keywords, so called tags . Those tags help users in finding/retrieving resources, discovering new resources, and navigating through the system. The process of tagging resources is laborious. Therefore, most systems support their users by tag recommender components that recommend tags in a personalized way. The Discovery Challenges 2008 and 2009 of the European Conference on Machine Learning and Principles and Practice of Knowledge Discovery in Databases (ECML PKDD) tackled the problem of tag recommendations in collaborative tagging systems. Researchers were invited to test their methods in a competition on datasets from the social bookmark and publication sharing system BibSonomy. Moreover, the 2009 challenge included an online task where the recommender systems were integrated into BibSonomy and provided recommendations in real time. In this chapter we review, evaluate and summarize the submissions to the two Discovery Challenges and thus lay the groundwork for continuing research in this area.
Extending FolkRank with content data
Landia, N.; Anand, S. S.; Hotho, A.; Jäschke, R.; Doerfel, S. & Mitzlaff, F.
, 'Proceedings of the 4th ACM RecSys workshop on Recommender systems and the social web', RSWeb '12, ACM, New York, NY, USA, [10.1145/2365934.2365936], 1-8 (2012) [pdf]
Real-world tagging datasets have a large proportion of new/ untagged documents. Few approaches for recommending tags to a user for a document address this new item problem, concentrating instead on artificially created post-core datasets where it is guaranteed that the user as well as the document of each test post is known to the system and already has some tags assigned to it. In order to recommend tags for new documents, approaches are required which model documents not only based on the tags assigned to them in the past (if any), but also the content. In this paper we present a novel adaptation to the widely recognised FolkRank tag recommendation algorithm by including content data. We adapt the FolkRank graph to use word nodes instead of document nodes, enabling it to recommend tags for new documents based on their textual content. Our adaptations make FolkRank applicable to post-core 1 ie. the full real-world tagging datasets and address the new item problem in tag recommendation. For comparison, we also apply and evaluate the same methodology of including content on a simpler tag recommendation algorithm. This results in a less expensive recommender which suggests a combination of user related and document content related tags.</p> <p>Including content data into FolkRank shows an improvement over plain FolkRank on full tagging datasets. However, we also observe that our simpler content-aware tag recommender outperforms FolkRank with content data. Our results suggest that an optimisation of the weighting method of FolkRank is required to achieve better results.
Combining content and relation analysis for recommendation in social tagging systems
Zhang, Y.; Zhang, B.; Gao, K.; Guo, P. & Sun, D.
Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, 391(22) 5759 - 5768 (2012) [pdf]
Social tagging is one of the most important ways to organize and index online resources. Recommendation in social tagging systems, e.g. tag recommendation, item recommendation and user recommendation, is used to improve the quality of tags and to ease the tagging or searching process. Existing works usually provide recommendations by analyzing relation information in social tagging systems, suffering a lot from the over sparse problem. These approaches ignore information contained in the content of resources, which we believe should be considered to improve recommendation quality and to deal with the over sparse problem. In this paper we propose a recommendation approach for social tagging systems that combines content and relation analysis in a single model. By modeling the generating process of social tagging systems in a latent Dirichlet allocation approach, we build a fully generative model for social tagging, leverage it to estimate the relation between users, tags and resources and achieve tag, item and user recommendation tasks. The model is evaluated using a CiteULike data snapshot, and results show improvements in metrics for various recommendation tasks.
Harnessing Folksonomies to Produce a Social Classification of Resources
Zubiaga, A.; Fresno, V.; Martinez, R. & Garcia-Plaza, A. P.
IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, 99(PrePrints) (2012)
A Comparison of Content-Based Tag Recommendations in Folksonomy Systems
Illig, J.; Hotho, A.; Jäschke, R. & Stumme, G.
Wolff, K. E.; Palchunov, D. E.; Zagoruiko, N. G. & Andelfinger, U., ed., 'Knowledge Processing and Data Analysis', 6581(), Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, [10.1007/978-3-642-22140-8_9], 136-149 (2011) [pdf]
Recommendation algorithms and multi-class classifiers can support users of social bookmarking systems in assigning tags to their bookmarks. Content based recommenders are the usual approach for facing the cold start problem, i.e., when a bookmark is uploaded for the first time and no information from other users can be exploited. In this paper, we evaluate several recommendation algorithms in a cold-start scenario on a large real-world dataset.
Social Tagging Recommender Systems.
Marinho, L. B.; Nanopoulos, A.; Schmidt-Thieme, L.; Jäschke, R.; Hotho, A.; Stumme, G. & Symeonidis, P.
Ricci, F.; Rokach, L.; Shapira, B. & Kantor, P. B., ed., 'Recommender Systems Handbook', Springer, 615-644 (2011) [pdf]
Making Sense of Twitter.
Laniado, D. & Mika, P.
Patel-Schneider, P. F.; Pan, Y.; Hitzler, P.; Mika, P.; Zhang, L.; Pan, J. Z.; Horrocks, I. & Glimm, B., ed., 'International Semantic Web Conference (1)', 6496(), Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer, 470-485 (2010) [pdf]
SWE-FE: Extending folksonomies to the Sensor Web
Rezel, R. & Liang, S.
, '2010 International Symposium on Collaborative Technologies and Systems (CTS)', IEEE, [10.1109/CTS.2010.5478494], 349-356 (2010) [pdf]
This paper presents SWE-FE: a suite of methods to extend folksonomies to the worldwide Sensor Web in order to tackle the emergent data rich information poor (DRIP) syndrome afflicting most geospatial applications on the Internet. SWE-FE leverages the geospatial information associated with three key components of such collaborative tagging systems: tags, resources and users. Specifically, SWE-FE provides algorithms for: i) suggesting tags for users during the tag input stage; ii) generating tag maps which provides for serendipitous browsing; and iii) personalized searching within the folksonomy. We implement SWE-FE on the GeoCENS Sensor Web platform as a case study for assessing the efficacy of our methods. We outline the evaluation framework that we are currently employing to carry out this assessment.
I tag, you tag: translating tags for advanced user models
Wetzker, R.; Zimmermann, C.; Bauckhage, C. & Albayrak, S.
, 'Proceedings of the third ACM international conference on Web search and data mining', WSDM '10, ACM, New York, NY, USA, [10.1145/1718487.1718497], 71-80 (2010) [pdf]
Collaborative tagging services (folksonomies) have been among the stars of the Web 2.0 era. They allow their users to label diverse resources with freely chosen keywords (tags). Our studies of two real-world folksonomies unveil that individual users develop highly personalized vocabularies of tags. While these meet individual needs and preferences, the considerable differences between personal tag vocabularies (personomies) impede services such as social search or customized tag recommendation. In this paper, we introduce a novel user-centric tag model that allows us to derive mappings between personal tag vocabularies and the corresponding folksonomies. Using these mappings, we can infer the meaning of user-assigned tags and can predict choices of tags a user may want to assign to new items. Furthermore, our translational approach helps in reducing common problems related to tag ambiguity, synonymous tags, or multilingualism. We evaluate the applicability of our method in tag recommendation and tag-based social search. Extensive experiments show that our translational model improves the prediction accuracy in both scenarios.
Recommender Systems for Social Bookmarking
Bogers, T.
2009, PhD thesis, Tilburg University [pdf]
Recommender systems belong to a class of personalized information filtering technologies that aim to identify which items in a collection might be of interest to a particular user. Recommendations can be made using a variety of information sources related to both the user and the items: past user preferences, demographic information, item popularity, the metadata characteristics of the products, etc. Social bookmarking websites, with their emphasis on open collaborative information access, offer an ideal scenario for the application of recommender systems technology. They allow users to manage their favorite bookmarks online through a web interface and, in many cases, allow their users to tag the content they have added to the system with keywords. The underlying application then makes all information sharable among users. Examples of social bookmarking services include Delicious, Diigo, Furl, CiteULike, and BibSonomy. In my Ph.D. thesis I describe the work I have done on item recommendation for social bookmarking, i.e., recommending interesting bookmarks to users based on the content they bookmarked in the past. In my experiments I distinguish between two types of information sources. The first one is usage data contained in the folksonomy, which represents the past selections and transactions of all users, i.e., who added which items, and with what tags. The second information source is the metadata describing the bookmarks or articles on a social bookmarking website, such as title, description, authorship, tags, and temporal and publication-related metadata. I compare and combine the content-based aspect with the more common usage-based approaches. I evaluate my approaches on four data sets constructed from three different social bookmarking websites: BibSonomy, CiteULike, and Delicious. In addition, I investigate different combination methods for combining different algorithms and show which of those methods can successfully improve recommendation performance. Finally, I consider two growing pains that accompany the maturation of social bookmarking websites: spam and duplicate content. I examine how widespread each of these problems are for social bookmarking and how to develop effective automatic methods for detecting such unwanted content. Finally, I investigate the influence spam and duplicate content can have on item recommendation.
The Effectiveness of Latent Semantic Analysis for Building Up a Bottom-up Taxonomy from Folksonomy Tags.
Eda, T.; Yoshikawa, M.; Uchiyama, T. & Uchiyama, T.
World Wide Web, 12(4) 421-440 (2009) [pdf]
Semantically enriching folksonomies with FLOR
Angeletou, S.; Sabou, M. & Motta, E.
, 'In Proc of the 5th ESWC. workshop: Collective Intelligence &amp; the Semantic Web' (2008) [pdf]
Abstract. While the increasing popularity of folksonomies has lead to a vast quantity of tagged data, resource retrieval in folksonomies is limited by being agnostic to the meaning (i.e., semantics) of tags. Our goal is to automatically enrich folksonomy tags (and implicitly the related resources) with formal semantics by associating them to relevant concepts defined in online ontologies. We introduce FLOR, a method that performs automatic folksonomy enrichment by combining knowledge from WordNet and online available ontologies. Experimentally testing FLOR, we found that it correctly enriched 72 % of 250 Flickr photos. 1
Semantic Grounding of Tag Relatedness in Social Bookmarking Systems
Cattuto, C.; Benz, D.; Hotho, A. & Stumme, G.
, 'The Semantic Web - ISWC 2008', 5318(), Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, [10.1007/978-3-540-88564-1_39], 615-631 (2008) [pdf]
Collaborative tagging systems have nowadays become important data sources for populating semantic web applications. For tasks like synonym detection and discovery of concept hierarchies, many researchers introduced measures of tag similarity. Eventhough most of these measures appear very natural, their design often seems to be rather ad hoc, and the underlying assumptionson the notion of similarity are not made explicit. A more systematic characterization and validation of tag similarity interms of formal representations of knowledge is still lacking. Here we address this issue and analyze several measures oftag similarity: Each measure is computed on data from the social bookmarking system and a semantic grounding isprovided by mapping pairs of similar tags in the folksonomy to pairs of synsets in Wordnet, where we use validated measuresof semantic distance to characterize the semantic relation between the mapped tags. This exposes important features of theinvestigated similarity measures and indicates which ones are better suited in the context of a given semantic application.
The State of the Art in Tag Ontologies: A Semantic Model for Tagging and Folksonomies
Kim, H. L.; Scerri, S.; Breslin, J. G.; Decker, S. & Kim, H. G.
, 'Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Dublin Core and Metadata Applications', Dublin Core Metadata Initiative, Berlin, Deutschland, 128-137 (2008)
Logsonomy - social information retrieval with logdata
Krause, B.; Jäschke, R.; Hotho, A. & Stumme, G.
, 'HT '08: Proceedings of the nineteenth ACM conference on Hypertext and hypermedia', ACM, New York, NY, USA, [], 157-166 (2008) [pdf]
Social bookmarking systems constitute an established part of the Web 2.0. In such systems users describe bookmarks by keywords called tags. The structure behind these social systems, called folksonomies, can be viewed as a tripartite hypergraph of user, tag and resource nodes. This underlying network shows specific structural properties that explain its growth and the possibility of serendipitous exploration.
day's search engines represent the gateway to retrieve information from the World Wide Web. Short queries typically consisting of two to three words describe a user's information need. In response to the displayed results of the search engine, users click on the links of the result page as they expect the answer to be of relevance.
is clickdata can be represented as a folksonomy in which queries are descriptions of clicked URLs. The resulting network structure, which we will term logsonomy is very similar to the one of folksonomies. In order to find out about its properties, we analyze the topological characteristics of the tripartite hypergraph of queries, users and bookmarks on a large snapshot of and on query logs of two large search engines. All of the three datasets show small world properties. The tagging behavior of users, which is explained by preferential attachment of the tags in social bookmark systems, is reflected in the distribution of single query words in search engines. We can conclude that the clicking behaviour of search engine users based on the displayed search results and the tagging behaviour of social bookmarking users is driven by similar dynamics.
Learning Concept Hierarchies from Text Corpora using Formal Concept Analysis
Cimiano, P.; Hotho, A. & Staab, S.
Journal on Artificial Intelligence Research, 24() 305-339 (2005) [pdf]