Automatic Discovery of Part-Whole Relations.
An important problem in knowledge discovery from text is the automatic extraction of semantic relations. This paper presents a supervised, semantically intensive, domain independent approach for the automatic detection of part–whole relations in text. First an algorithm is described that identifies lexico-syntactic patterns that encode part–whole relations. A difficulty is that these patterns also encode other semantic relations, and a learning method is necessary to discriminate whether or not a pattern contains a part–whole relation. A large set of training examples have been annotated and fed into a specialized learning system that learns classification rules. The rules are learned through an iterative semantic specialization (ISS) method applied to noun phrase constituents. Classification rules have been generated this way for different patterns such as genitives, noun compounds, and noun phrases containing prepositional phrases to extract part–whole relations from them. The applicability of these rules has been tested on a test corpus obtaining an overall average precision of 80.95% and recall of 75.91%. The results demonstrate the importance of word sense disambiguation for this task. They also demonstrate that different lexico-syntactic patterns encode different semantic information and should be treated separately in the sense that different clarification rules apply to different patterns.
Automatic Extraction of Semantic Relationships for WordNet by Means of Pattern Learning from Wikipedia
This paper describes an automatic approach to identify lexical patterns which represent semantic relationships between concepts, from an on-line encyclopedia. Next, these patterns can be applied to extend existing ontologies or semantic networks with new relations. The experiments have been performed with the Simple English Wikipedia and WordNet 1.7. A new algorithm has been devised for automatically generalising the lexical patterns found in the encyclopedia entries. We have found general patterns for the hyperonymy, hyponymy, holonymy and meronymy relations and, using them, we have extracted more than 1200 new relationships that did not appear in WordNet originally. The precision of these relationships ranges between 0.61 and 0.69, depending on the relation.