Ganoderma carocalcareus sp nov., with crumbly-friable context parasite to saprobe on Anthocleista nobilis and its phylogenetic relationship in G-resinaceum group
Douanla-Meli, C. & Langer, E.
Mycological Progress, 8(2) 145-155 (2009) [pdf]
A new species Ganoderma carocalcareus (Basidiomycota, Ganodermataceae) was collected on living trunk and dead stumps of Anthocleista nobilis (Gentianaceae) in waterlogged swamps in the Mbalmayo Forest Reserve, Cameroon, and identified on the basis of morphology and phylogenetic analyses inferred from mitochondrial small subunit (mtSSU) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) rDNA sequences. Distinct phenotypic characteristics of the new species are dimorphism of basidiomata and variability in context structure and texture over developmental stages. The young basidiomata is ungulate to punk-shaped with context composed of vegetative hyphae attended by scattered, orbicular, smooth, thick-walled chlamydospores, and the mature basidiomata is cushion- to bracket-like with context entirely consisting of chlamydospores masses. This ontogeny intimates the origin of chlamydospores, for which the biogenesis correlates the vanishing of vegetative hyphae throughout the basidiomata maturation. Morphological comparison included Tomophagus colossus (=G. colossus), G. subamboinense and G. weberianum, the known Ganodermataceae species producing chlamydospores and or gasterospores in basidiomata tissues, and G. resinaceum, the closest species with regard to morphology. It followed that G. carocalcareus could not be assigned to these or any other known Ganoderma species. Analyses of mtSSU and ITS rDNA sequence data resolved G. carocalcareus in the G. resinaceum group as a distinct species, but being a close relative of both G. subamboinense and G. weberianum.
The cantharelloid clade: dealing with incongruent gene trees and phylogenetic reconstruction methods
Moncalvo, J. M.; Nilsson, R. H.; Koster, B.; Dunham, S. M.; Bernauer, T.; Matheny, P. B.; Porter, T. M.; Margaritescu, S.; Weiss, M.; Garnica, S.; Danell, E.; Langer, G.; Langer, E.; Larsson, E.; Larsson, K. H. & Vilgalys, R.
Mycologia, 98(6) 937-948 (2006) [pdf]
We reassessed the circumscription of the cantharelloid clade and identified monophyletic groups by using nLSU, nSSU, mtSSU and RPB2 sequence data. Results agreed with earlier studies that placed the genera Cantharellus, Craterellus, Hydnum, Clavulina, Membranomyces, Multiclavula, Sistotrema, Botryobasidium and the family Ceratobasidiaceae in that clade. Phylogenetic analyses support monophyly of all genera except Sistotrema, which was highly polyphyletic. Strongly supported monophyletic groups were: (i) Cantharellus-Craterellus, Hydnum, and the Sistotrema confluens group; (ii) Clavulina-Membranomyces and the S. brinkmannii-oblongisporum group, with Multiclavula being possibly sister of that clade; (iii) the Sistotrema eximum-octosporum group; (iv) Sistotrema adnatum and S. coronilla. Positions of Sistotrema raduloides and S. athelioides were unresolved, as were basal relationships. Botryobasidium was well supported as the sister taxon of all the above taxa, while Ceratobasidiaceae was the most basal lineage. The relationship between Tulasnella and members of the cantharelloid clade will require further scrutiny, although there is cumulative evidence that they are probably sister groups. The rates of molecular evolution of both the large and small nuclear ribosomal RNA genes (nuc-rDNA) are much higher in Cantharellus, Craterellus and Tulasnella than in the other cantharelloid taxa, and analyses of nuc-rDNA sequences strongly placed Tulasnella close to Cantharellus-Craterellus. In contrast analyses with RPB2 and mtSSU sequences placed Tulasnella at the base of the cantharelloid clade. Our attempt to reconstruct a "supertree" from tree topologies resulting from separate analyses that avoided phylogenetic reconstruction problems associated with missing data and/or unalignable sequences proved unsuccessful.
The phylogenetic distribution of resupinate forms across the major clades of mushroom-forming fungi (Homobasidiomycetes)
Binder, M.; Hibbett, D. S.; Larsson, K. H.; Larsson, E.; Langer, E. & Langer, G.
Systematics and Biodiversity, 3(2) 113-157 (2005) [pdf]
Phylogenetic relationships of resupinate Homobasidiomycetes (Corticiaceae s. lat. and others) were studied using ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences from a broad sample of resupinate and nonresupinate taxa. Two datasets were analysed using parsimony, a'core'dataset of 142 species, each of which is represented by four rDNA regions (mitochondrial and nuclear large and small subunits), and a 'full' clataset of 656 species, most of which were represented only by nuclear large subunit rDNA sequences. Both datasets were analysed using traditional heuristic methods with bootstrapping, and the full clataset was also analysed with the Parsimony Ratchet, using equal character weights and six-parameter weighted parsimony. Analyses of both datasets supported monophyly of the eight major clades of Homobasicliomycetes recognised by Hibbett and Thorn, as well as independent lineages corresponding to the Gloeophyllum clade, corticioid clade and jaapia argillacea. Analyses of the full clataset resolved two additional groups, the athelioid clade and trechisporoid clade (the latter may be nested in the polyporoid clade). Thus, there are at least 12 independent clades of Homobasicliomycetes. Higher-level relationships among the major clades are not resolved with confidence. Nevertheless, the euagarics clade, bolete clade, athelioid clade and jaapia argillacea are consistently resolved as a monophyletic group, whereas the cantharelloid clade, gomphoid-phalloid clade and hymenochaetoid clade are placed at the base of the Homobasidiomycetes, which is consistent with the preponderance of imperforate parenthesomes in those groups. Resupinate forms occur in each of the major clades of Homobasidiomycetes, some of which are composed mostly or exclusively of resupinate forms (athelioid clade, corticioid clade, trechisporoid clade,jaapia). The largest concentrations of resupinate forms occur in the polyporoid clade, russuloid clade and hymenochaetoid clade. The cantharelloid clade also includes many resupinate forms, including some that have traditionally been regarded as heterobasidiomycetes (Sebacinaceae, Tulasnellates, Ceratobasidiales). The euagarics clade, which is by far the largest clade in the Homobasidiomycetes, has the smallest fraction of resupinate species. Results of the present study are compared with recent phylogenetic analyses, and a table summarising the phylogenetic distribution of resupinate taxa is presented, as well as notes on the ecology of resupinate forms and related Homobasidiomycetes.