The phylogenetic distribution of resupinate forms across the major clades of mushroom-forming fungi (Homobasidiomycetes)
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Systematics and Biodiversity 3 (2): 113-157 (Juni 2005)

Phylogenetic relationships of resupinate Homobasidiomycetes (Corticiaceae s. lat. and others) were studied using ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences from a broad sample of resupinate and nonresupinate taxa. Two datasets were analysed using parsimony, a'core'dataset of 142 species, each of which is represented by four rDNA regions (mitochondrial and nuclear large and small subunits), and a 'full' clataset of 656 species, most of which were represented only by nuclear large subunit rDNA sequences. Both datasets were analysed using traditional heuristic methods with bootstrapping, and the full clataset was also analysed with the Parsimony Ratchet, using equal character weights and six-parameter weighted parsimony. Analyses of both datasets supported monophyly of the eight major clades of Homobasicliomycetes recognised by Hibbett and Thorn, as well as independent lineages corresponding to the Gloeophyllum clade, corticioid clade and jaapia argillacea. Analyses of the full clataset resolved two additional groups, the athelioid clade and trechisporoid clade (the latter may be nested in the polyporoid clade). Thus, there are at least 12 independent clades of Homobasicliomycetes. Higher-level relationships among the major clades are not resolved with confidence. Nevertheless, the euagarics clade, bolete clade, athelioid clade and jaapia argillacea are consistently resolved as a monophyletic group, whereas the cantharelloid clade, gomphoid-phalloid clade and hymenochaetoid clade are placed at the base of the Homobasidiomycetes, which is consistent with the preponderance of imperforate parenthesomes in those groups. Resupinate forms occur in each of the major clades of Homobasidiomycetes, some of which are composed mostly or exclusively of resupinate forms (athelioid clade, corticioid clade, trechisporoid clade,jaapia). The largest concentrations of resupinate forms occur in the polyporoid clade, russuloid clade and hymenochaetoid clade. The cantharelloid clade also includes many resupinate forms, including some that have traditionally been regarded as heterobasidiomycetes (Sebacinaceae, Tulasnellates, Ceratobasidiales). The euagarics clade, which is by far the largest clade in the Homobasidiomycetes, has the smallest fraction of resupinate species. Results of the present study are compared with recent phylogenetic analyses, and a table summarising the phylogenetic distribution of resupinate taxa is presented, as well as notes on the ecology of resupinate forms and related Homobasidiomycetes.
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